China

Chinese FlagCountry profile: TV & Radio in China
Terrestrial Standard: DTMB

Radio: Analogue & DAB

There are 3,000 television stations across the country. Large international TV expositions, including the Shanghai Television Festival, Beijing International Television Week, China Radio and Television Exposition and Sichuan Television Festival, are held on a regular basis.

Besides judging and conferring awards, these festivals conduct academic exchange and the import and export of TV programs. Shanghai has become the largest television programme trading market in Asia.

In conformity with trends in the international television industry, CCTV has made progress in the direction of specialization, introducing three specialized channels between 2003 and 2004, CCTV-News, CCTV-Children and CCTV-Music.

Since September 1, 2006, the Chinese government has banned foreign-produced animation between the hours of 5:00 to 8:00 P.M. on state-run television to protect struggling Chinese animation studios that have been affected by the popularity of such cartoons.

Despite these advances, a considerable gap remains between the eastern coastal region and the Chinese hinterland, where televisions and regional broadcasters are far less common.

Live Chinese TV & Radio Streams available at: http://wcetv.com


 

CCTV

CCTVChina Central Television (CCTV), is the predominant state television broadcaster in People’s Republic of China. CCTV has a network of 45 channels broadcasting different programmes and is accessible to more than one billion viewers.
Most of its programmes are a mixture of news, documentary, comedy, entertainment, and drama, the majority of which consists of Chinese soap operas and entertainment.

China Network Television (CNTV) is an internet-based broadcaster of China Central Television which launched on 28 December 2009. CNTV offers six foreign languages services, including English, French, Spanish, Russian, Korean, and Arabic.

CCTV produces its own news broadcasts three times a day and is the country’s most powerful and prolific television program producer.
Its thirty-minute evening news, Xinwen Lianbo (“CCTV Network News” or “CCTV Tonight”, (新闻联播), goes on air daily at 7:00 pm Beijing time.
One On One CCTVAll local stations are required to carry CCTV’s news broadcast. An internal CCTV survey indicates that nearly 500 million people countrywide regularly watch this program. However, the figure has slumped in recent years; the programme now has 10% of the ratings market, compared to 40% before 1998.

Although news reform has been a prominent feature of CCTV networks, the Evening News has remained relatively the same since its first appearance in the early 1980s. Many important political news stories are broadcast through the programme.

Focus, first introduced in 1994, is a popular programme on CCTV. This discussion programme regularly exposes the wrongdoings of local officials, which attracts serious attention from higher levels of government. The programme also exposes the Chinese Government’s response to the corrupt charges.

The CCTV New Year’s Gala (中国中央电视台春节联欢晚会), a yearly special programme for the Chinese New Year, is the most-watched CCTV programme.


 

CCTV-4

CCTV-4 中文国际 is a 24-hour Chinese international channel. It is one of six China Central Television channels that broadcasts outside of the People’s Republic of China.

Amongst its programmes are documentaries, music, news, sports, children’s shows, drama, and sports.
It also covers national politics, economy, culture and education. Viewers can opt for entertainment programmes that trace the history of China, exciting series, films, and talk shows.

As well as the regular news, CCTV 4 Europe also features flash information. For those that fancy discovering and learning Mandarin, there are educational programmes covering the basics.
This includes everyday phrases, greetings, numbers, time, and more.

Many of the broadcasts on CCTV-4 Europe feature English subtitles, which also assists non-speakers of Mandarin to pick up the language. Amongst CCTV-4 Channel’s popular programmes is Chinese News, Lecture Room, and My Remote Family.

The channel enables Chinese speaking people to view objective news reports, and current affairs programmes broadcast from their native country.

It is also designed to promote China in a positive light, and display Chinese culture, including current events, and entertainment. News presenters on CCTV-4 Europe are known for their charismatic personalities and sharp intelligence.

Website: http://tv.cctv.com/live/cctveurope/ (Chinese)


 

CCTV-9/CCTV-9 Documentary

Language: English
Satellite: Astra 1 (19.2° East), Eutelsat Hotbird (13.0° East)

CCTV-9 is the documentary channel of CCTV in the People’s Republic of China. The channel has a local Mandarin Chinese edition called CCTV-9, and an international English language edition called CCTV-9 Documentary which is carried by more satellites.

CCTV-9 Documentary has also been known to carry some Mandarin-language programmes with English subtitles; they broadcast new programming between 19:00 and 23:00 Beijing time, and repeat archival programming at other times.

Website: http://cctv.cntv.cn/documentary/


 

CCTV News

CCTV NewsCCTV News, is a 24-hour English news channel based in Beijing. The channel grew out of CCTV International, which was launched on 15 September 2000. CCTV News coverage includes newscasts, in-depth reports, and commentary programs, as well as feature presentations.

Its Free-to-air satellite signal can be received by more than 85 million viewers, in over 100 countries and regions.
It is also carried by Cable, DTH, IPTV, and Terrestrial TV platforms or systems in many nations.
It caters to a global English-speaking audience, including overseas Chinese and English speakers in China.

CCTV News usually airs a live news bulletin in the first half of each hour. As well as a generic news programme, there are specialist bulletins focusing on Chinese and Asian news, such as China 24 and business news BIZ ASIA.
Programming in the second half of each hour includes, sports bulletins, a travel show called Travelogue which takes viewers to destinations around China and the world, and magazines covering the arts, science and sports.

The programmes on CCTV News include News Update and News Hour, providing comprehensive global coverage; and China 24 and Asia Today, delivering the latest domestic and regional developments.
Specialized programmes include Biz Asia, Biz Talk, New Money, Culture Express and Sports Scene, providing news and information on business, finance, economics, culture, and sports. Shows such as Dialogue and World Insight extend balanced and critical perspectives on current affairs affecting all corners of the globe.

CCTV News also provides programmes on culture, history, and modern society of China and Asia. In Crossover, hosts and guests of various backgrounds and experiences talk about issues throughout China.
Travelogue is the ticket to dynamic and exciting landscapes in China and abroad. Rediscovering China explores contemporary Chinese and Asian culture and social changes through the eyes of international visitors. And Story Board delivers a visual profile of all Asian countries.

CCTV in Chinese: http://tv.cctv.com
CCTV in English: http://english.cntv.cn


 

China Xinhua News Network Corporation

CNC World
CNC World

The China Xinhua News Network Corporation (CNC), is a Chinese state-owned television network owned by the Xinhua News Agency that began broadcasting on January 1, 2010. It was launched along with CNC Chinese and CNC Finance and Business Channel. CNC World, a 24-hour English-language channel, was launched on July 1, 2010.

Stationed in over 170 countries and regions, CNC’s correspondents offer an alternative perspective and a new vision on global events through live reporting, news analysis and background information.

CNC WORLD ia available in many parts of Asia-Pacific, North America, Central America, Europe, the Middle East, Oceania and Africa through satellite networks, including APSTAR VI, Galaxy 19, Hot Bird, Eurobird 1, W7 Astra 2 and MIH.

CNC WORLD has expanded its reach on cable & wireless digital TV networks in more than 60 countries and regions, including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, New Zealand, sub-Saharan Africa, Thailand, Hong Kong and Macao. The cost of the operation is around 45 billion yuan ($9.24 billion).

CNC Channels: CNC Chinese, CNC World, CNC Español & CNC Français

Website in English: www.xinhuanet.com


 

Blue Ocean Network

BONBlue Ocean Network, BON, (蓝海电视) is an English-language television news network based in China. According to the Global Times, it is the first privately owned Chinese commercial TV network.It states it “is one of the first private English-language Television Network to offer International viewers fresh China-focused news and features, including business & technology, travel, art & creativity, and health & living programming, produced exclusively from China.”It previously stated its aim was to provide “comprehensive and objective programming produced exclusively from, and about, China”.

The station primarily broadcasts two types of shows, news and culture.The news shows have included China Price Watch, China Beat, China Take, MicroBlog Buzz, On the Level, and Media Watch.Previous and current news anchors include Fergus Thompson, Joshua Linder, Neal Jones, David Nye, Joseph Nordstrom, Michael Butterworth, Ken Xu, Matt Sheehan, Yue Xu , and a number of others with insight into China related topics.

Because it is run independently, BON’s news programming has been able to report on a variety of topics considered taboo on state-run Chinese news networks.Cultural programming includes reality travel shows, talk shows, and educational programming.Many of the station’s programmes are available on television and online platforms. A number of the videos have gone viral on YouTube and Chinese social media platforms such as Weibo, Baidu Video, Sohu, and Youku Tudou.

Website: http://cp.bon.tv


 

Phoenix CNE

PCNE ChinesePhoenix Chinese TV Group is a Hong Kong-based television broadcaster, and launched its flagship Chinese Channel in 31 March 1996.
The massive market of 1.3 billion viewers in mainland China, combined with successful expansion strategies, has enabled Phoenix to develop a comprehensive multi-channel platform.
Phoenix broadcasts internationally, and can be seen in Southeast Asia, Australasia, Europe and the US.

The Phoenix news service is almost compulsory viewing for Chinese who are interested in world trends, providing one of the best sources of international news available in Chinese.
Its global coverage is much more comprehensive than that of any comparable Chinese language broadcaster.

Today, Phoenix Chinese Channel, Phoenix movies, Phoenix InfoNews, Phoenix Chinese News and Entertainment and Phoenix North America Chinese Channel deliver content to audiences all over the world.

Phoenix has been rated as one of China’s 500 most valuable brands, announced by the World Brand Laboratory, one of the world’s leading brand evaluation organizations, in the world Brand summit since 2000.

As a bridge connecting Europe with the greater China Region, Phoenix Chinese News & Entertainment Channel (PCNE) brings to its European and African audience an uninterrupted stream of political and business information and a variety of entertainment programmes through a wide distribution network.

The channel broadcasts its Chinese programmes 24/7 via satellite.Phoenix CNE is also dedicated to promote closer economic partnerships and cultural exchanges between China and Europe, creates waves for Chinese enterprises and provinces in their efforts to open up new trade and investment opportunities in Europe.Apart from serving the needs of the European and Africa Chinese communities,

Website: www.pcne.tv


 

Cable TV

China Digital TVCable television in the usual transmission method in all urban areas of mainland China – television aerials are an extremely rare sight. Cable systems usually carry all the CCTV channels in Mandarin, plus all the channels of municipal, provincial or regional station in question.

The remaining slots carry the main channels from several other province-level stations, and may carry additional channels from metropolitan stations such as BTV and Shanghai Media Group. They may also carry a local channel for a particular sub-provincial municipality, prefecture or county. Individual compounds (hotels, housing estates, etc.) often add a request channel showing karaoke music videos and animations.

An extremely small number of compounds with many foreign residents (e.g. five star hotels in Beijing) will also carry selected channels from Hong Kong, Taiwan and the West.
Phoenix Television has the widest carriage under this rule. Mainland China has more than 44.5 million digital cable television users.

Unlike many cable television operators in other countries that support two-way modes, China’s cable television runs in a one-way mode (download only, no upload and no interactive services).


 

Censorship

China censorshipTelevision censorship is conducted by State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television of People’s Republic of China (PRC) and targets the overseas programsmes (including those from Hong Kong and Macau), that can be watched in Mainland China.
In addition receiving satellite TV signals without permission is against the law in Mainland China.

Foreign and Hong Kong news broadcasts in mainland China such as TVB, Phoenix TV, CNN, BBC World, BBC World Service, CNBC and Bloomberg Television are occasionally censored by being “blacked out” during controversial segments. CNN has reported that their broadcast agreement in China includes an arrangement that their signal must pass through a Chinese-controlled satellite. In this way, Chinese authorities have been able to black out CNN segments at will. CNN has also said that their broadcasts are not widely available in China, but rather only in certain diplomatic compounds, hotels, and apartment blocks.

Enforcement in television censorship is increasingly difficult and ineffective in the early part of the twenty-first century, partly due to satellite signal hacking systems that can be purchased in most major cities for as low as 2000 ¥ RMB ($285), which access channels and programmes on many satellites serving the Asian Pacific region.


 

DTMB

DTMB Coverage Plan 2016DTMB (Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcast) is the TV standard for mobile and fixed terminals used in the People’s Republic of China, Cuba, Hong Kong, and Macau.
The DTMB standard uses many advanced technologies to improve their performance, for example, a pseudo-random noise code (PN) as a guard interval that allows faster synchronization system and a more accurate channel estimation, Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) for error correction, modulation Time Domain Synchronization – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (TDS-OFDM) which allows the combination of broadcasting in SD, HD and multimedia services, etc.

This system gives flexibility to the services offered to support the combination of single-frequency networks (SFN) and multi-frequency networks (MFN). The different modes and parameters can be chosen depending on the type of service and network’s environment.

The sequence of pseudo-random pattern is defined in time domain and the information of the Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is defined in the frequency domain.
The two frames are multiplexed in the time domain, resulting in Time domain synchronization (TDS).

Functional scheme
The data passes through the encoder, the error protection process FEC (Forward Error Correction), through the constellation mapping process and then the interleaving processes the information to create the data blocks.
The data block and the TPS information are multiplexed, and pass through the data processor to form the body structure. It combines information from the body and the head to form the frame and this is passed through the SRRC (Square Root Raised Cosine) filter to become a signal within an 8 MHz channel bandwidth.
Finally the signal is modulated to put it in the corresponding frequency band.

Features
Bit-rate: from 4.813 Mbit/s to 32.486 Mbit/s
Combination of SD, HD, and multimedia services
Flexibility of services
Time and frequency domain of data-processing
Broadcasting of between 6 and 15 SD channels and 1 or 2 HD channels
Same quality of reception as wire broadcast

Digital Switchover
The analogue signals within the country are be switched off in stages between 2015 to 2018, due to large size of the country. In the meantime, the policies emphasize the continued amalgamation of the three networks of Internet, television and telecom.

To realize the above goals, NDRC, MII and SARFT will be responsible for organizing special projects for implementing digital television services. Support will be given to digital TV related enterprises’ listings and more investment will be injected into them.

According to China’s national strategy, the country aims to shift from a major television manufacturer to a digital television power during the development of digital television industry.
The policies show that by 2010, the annual sales of China’s digital television sets and related products will reach RMB250 billion and the export volume will reach US$10 billion.

For more information see:
The DTMB Deployment Status in China and the Work for Future (PDF)


 

China National Radio

China National RadioChina National Radio (CNR), is the national radio station of the People’s Republic of China. Its headquarters are in Beijing.
CNR’s programming and production processes are increasingly specified, targeted and personalized.
CNR has 40 correspondent branches in major cities including Hong Kong and Macau, and dispatched correspondents in Taiwan.
CNR boasts more than 650 million regular listeners in the world, and it has become the biggest national broadcasting station in terms of the number of listeners.

CNR currently has eight channels, with 198 hours of daily broadcasting through satellite:

  • Channel one mainly broadcasts news in Mandarin to a national audience.
  • Channel two, Business Radio, broadcasts economic, scientific and technological information and service programs in Mandarin throughout China.
  • Channel three,  Music Radio, is an FM stereo music channel.
  • Channel four, Metro Radio, provides life programs exclusively to the listeners in Beijing.
  • Channel five and Channel six, Cross-straits Radio, broadcast programmes for listeners in Taiwan in the Southern Min Dialect.
  • Channel seven, Huaxia Radio, broadcasts programs for the listeners in Hong Kong, Macau and the Pearl River Delta in Cantonese.
  • Channel eight, Nationality Radio, broadcasts programs for the minority ethnic groups in Mongolian, Tibetan, Uigur, Kazak and Korean.

Website in Chinese: www.cnr.cn


 

China Radio International

CRIChina Radio International (CRI) was founded on December 3, 1941. CRI aims to introduce China to the rest of the world, introduce the world to China, report global affairs to the world, and promote understanding and friendship between the Chinese and peoples from other countries. CRI is China’s only state-level radio and television media organization specializing in international communications. CRI is headquartered in Beijing, China

Using 61 languages, China Radio International (CRI) has the most language services among all global media organizations. CRI’s multimedia platform includes radio, Internet, mobile web, television and print.

China Radio International’s English Service is one of CRI’s most important divisions. CRI provide the world with one of the most efficient and convenient ways of learning about China.
Theyfocus on news reporting as well as produce a variety of feature programs.
Under the motto “Your Bridge to China and the World,” China Radio International’s English Service’s dedicated staff works in three departments: NEWS Plus, EZFM, and CRIENGLISH.com.

Website: http://english.cri.cn

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